The 3 C’s in Managing Information as a Product, guest author: James Funk

By Richard Wang

If we are going to treat information as a product, we must look at the information manufacturing systems that create the information products. These information manufacturing systems are analogous to a product manufacturing system. In these systems the raw material or data is acted upon by some processes to produce information products that have value for an information consumer that can exist inside or outside of the organization.

There are various roles that need to be performed as part of this information manufacturing system. We have defined four major roles which areInformation Collector,Information Custodian,Information Consumer(Collectively referred to as the3C’s of IQ), andInformation Product Manager. Each of these roles is associated with a set of processes or tasks.

Information Collectors. The information collector defines and selects of raw data inputs needed to meet the information consumer’s stated needs. The information collector participates with the information consumer to define the data quality standards for this raw data input and in the development of procedures to obtain and control information inputs.

Additional responsibilities include measuring raw data inputs, analyzing the causes of gaps between the information input measurements and the corresponding data quality standards, evaluating the costs and benefits of alternative information inputs, participating in identifying improvements to information inputs, and implementing the improvements.

While normally thought of as a person, the information collector may be a person, a device, or a program. The information collector may or may not be part of the organization. Many organizations now use the Internet to interact with their customers. Initial entry of data about those customers is provided using an online process. The initial data quality of that customer information is dependent upon the external information collector. If an organization does not have adequate processes to check the validity of that information, they run the risk of disappointing the customer or incurring extra costs.

A brief example will explain why this is important. Recently, I began ordering products from a company through the Internet. After I received my first order, I noticed I had spelled my name incorrectly. I returned to the online process to edit the information. The site did not allow me to edit my name. I created a new account with the correct information. I now have two accounts with the organization. I placed subsequent orders using the second account. I now receive two catalogs. After a period of time I started receiving additional mailings urging me to place an order using the first account. I continue to do business with the company but there is no incentive for me to change the bad information. All the costs and problems related to the bad information are borne by the company.

Information Custodians.Information custodians are usually information technology employees within an organization. They are responsible for the design of automated processes that store, maintain and deliver the information product to information consumers. The information custodian measures the quality of the process and analyzes the causes for any gaps between the measurements and the approved data quality standards. They participate in the evaluation of the costs and benefits of process improvements, the prioritization of those process improvements as well as the implementation of these improvements. Improper actions by an information custodian or a lack of understanding of this role may affect data quality in the following ways:

  • The information that is designed into the automated system is not the information required by the information consumer,
  • The testing of the system is not complete causing the information manufacturing system to function erratically producing inconsistent information products, and
  • The information custodian does not adequately provide for data controls resulting in corrupt data in the system.

Information Consumers.Information consumers are responsible for the data utilization processes within the organization which includes additional data aggregation and integration activities. Organizations desire data that is fit for use to support the organization. The information consumer must determine what information is needed and the minimum data quality standards for that information. As they use the information, they provide feedback to the information collectors and custodians about the quality of the delivered information product. The information consumer is the key role for defining what constitutes good data quality for a particular information product. There are three aspects to this activity.

  • Data Definition – the information consumer must define the information required and the business rules needed to properly process that information
  • Data Reporting – the information consumer is responsible for defining the reporting needs to run the business and to use this information in the correct context
  • Data Inaccuracies – the information consumer is responsible for notifying the appropriate organization partners of any inaccurate data discovered.

Next month we will discuss the role of the Information Product Manager. In future columns we will discuss the patterns of poor data quality that can be impact the 3 C’s, and potential solutions you can use to minimize the problems created. We look forward to our continuing conversations about information quality and wish you success in your information quality journey. If you have questions about what we have discussed or want more clarity about what we have said, contact us at, or go to the MIT IQ web site

About the Author

Richard Y. Wang is Director of MIT Information Quality (MITIQ) Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also holds an appointment as University Professor of Information Quality, University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Before heading the MITIQ program Dr. Wang served as a professor at MIT for a decade. He also served on the faculty of the University of Arizona and Boston University. Dr. Wang received a Ph.D. in InformationTechnology from MIT. Wang has put the term Information Quality on the intellectual map with myriad publications. In 1996, Prof. Wang organized the premier International Conference on Information Quality, which he has served as the general conference chair and currently serves as Chairman of the Board. Wang’s books on information quality include Quality Information and Knowledge (Prentice Hall, 1999), Data Quality (Kluwer Academic, 2001), Introduction to Information Quality (MITIQ Publications, 2005), and Journey to Data Quality (MIT Press, 2006). Prof. Wang has been instrumental in the establishment of the Master of Science in Information Quality degree program at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (25 students enrolled in the first offering in September 2005), the Stuart Madnick IQ Best Paper Award for the International Conference on Information Quality (the first award was made in 2006), the comprehensive IQ Ph.D. dissertations website, and the Donald Ballou & Harry Pazer IQ Ph.D. Dissertation Award. Wang’s current research focuses on extending information quality to enterprise issues such as architecture, governance, and data sharing. Additionally, he heads a U.S. Government project on Leadership in Enterprise Architecture Deployment (LEAD). The MITIQ program offers certificate programs and executive courses on information quality. Dr. Wang is the recipient of the 2005 DAMA International Academic Achievement Award (previous recipients of this award include Ted Codd for the Relational Data model, Peter Chen for the Entity Relationship model, and Bill Inman for data warehouse contributions to the data management field). He has given numerous speeches in the public and private sectors internationally, including a thought-leader presentation to some 25 CIO’s at a gathering of the Advanced Practices Council of the Society of Information Management (SIM APC) in 2007. Dr. Wang can be reached at,